Mask Encyclopedia

- Apr 06, 2020-

Disposable medical mask

Masks is a kind of sanitary product, generally refers to a device that is worn on the nose and mouth to filter the air entering the nose and mouth, so as to block harmful gases, odors, and droplets from entering and exiting the wearer's mouth and nose. It is made of gauze or paper.

Masks have a certain filtering effect on the air entering the lungs. When respiratory infectious diseases are prevalent and when working in a polluted environment such as dust, wearing a mask has a very good effect.

Masks can be divided into air filter masks and air supply masks.

Basic Information

中文名称

(name)

口罩

(masks)

材质

(Material)

织物、动物毛、无纺布等

(Fabric, animal hair, non-woven fabric, etc.)

外文名称

(name)

face mask;antiseptic gauze;gauze mask

作用

(application)

阻碍尘埃,颗粒

(Block dust, particles)

分类

(type)

空气过滤式口罩和供气式口罩拼音kǒuzhào

A brief history

The first mask in the world was China. In ancient times, in order to prevent dust and tone pollution, people in the palace began to cover their noses and noses with silk scarves. If you are unclean, everyone will pass your nose. ". Covering your nose with your hands or sleeves is very unhygienic and inconvenient to do other things. Later, someone used a piece of silk cloth to cover your nose and mouth. In his book "Marco Polo's Travels", Marco Polo describes his experience of living in China for 17 years. There is one of them: "In the Yuan Dynasty palace, all the people who donated their food used silk cloth to cover their noses and mouths, so that their breath would not touch the food and drink."

In the early 13th century, masks only appeared in the Chinese court. In order to prevent the breath from reaching the emperor's food, the waiter used a silk and gold thread to make a mask.

At the end of the 19th century, masks were used in the field of medical care. German pathologist Ledch began to recommend medical staff to use gauze hoods to prevent bacterial infections.

At the beginning of the 20th century, masks became the must-have items for the first time. The Spanish flu, which has swept the world, has claimed the lives of about 50 million people, and ordinary people are required to use masks to protect against the virus.

In the middle and late 20th century, the number of large-scale use of masks was obviously frequent. The masks that have been written in the annals of history have played important roles in preventing and blocking the spread of germs.

In 1897, the German Medtech introduced to everyone a method of covering the nose and mouth with gauze to prevent bacteria from invading. Later, someone made a six-layer gauze mask and sewed it on the collar. Just turn it over and cover your nose and mouth. However, this kind of mask has to be held by hand, which is extremely inconvenient. Later, someone came up with a strap to wear on the ear, which became the mask that people often use today.

In 1910, the plague broke out in Harbin. At that time, Dr. Wu Liande, deputy supervisor of Beiyang Army Medical College, invented the "Wu mask".

In 2003, the use and popularization of masks reached a new climax. A SARS almost made the masks out of stock. A long line of people stood in front of the major pharmacies, and people rushed to buy masks.

In 2009, after the "avian flu" in 2004, the "H1N1 flu" made the army of masks appear again in front of the world's major news media.

The emergence of the PM2.5 air hazard concept in 2013 triggered public attention to the problem of air pollution, making masks and other protective equipment very popular during smog.

Specifications

 Planar masks are divided into: cotton masks, non-woven fabric masks, polymer material masks, activated carbon powder filter masks, activated carbon fiber felt pad masks.

Size specification: 18 × 9 (adult), 15 × 9 (child).

Item classification

N series: no time limit for protection of non-oily suspended particles

R series: Protect non-oily suspended particles and sweaty oily suspended particles for a period of eight hours

P series: no time limit for protection of non-oily suspended particles and sweaty oily suspended particles

When the carrier of some particulates is oily, and these substances are attached to the electrostatic non-woven fabric, the electrical properties will be reduced, and the fine dust will penetrate. Therefore, the filter material for preventing the oil-containing sol must undergo special electrostatic treatment to prevent the fine The purpose of dust. So each series is divided into 3 levels: 95%, 99%, 99.97% (referred to as 95, 99, 100), so there are 9 small categories of filter materials.

Second, the EU EN149 standard:

FFP1: minimum filtering effect》 80%

FFP2: Minimum filtering effect> 94%

FFP3: minimum filtering effect> 97%

3. Australian AS1716 standard

P1: Minimum filtering effect》 80%

P2: Minimum filtering effect> 94%

4. Japan MOL verification standards:

According to the Decree No. 0207006 issued by Japan on February 7, 2005, the standards of dust masks are as follows


                                                               Test environmental conditions
实验粒子DOP(液体)NaCl(固体)
粒径分布μm0.15-0.250.06-0.1
实验浓度[mg/m3]≤100≤50
实验流量[L/min]8585
试验时间供应总量200mg供应总量100mg

                                                        Replacement type dust mask standard
区分过滤效率[%以上]吸气压力[Pa以下]排气压力[Pa以下]
DOPNaCl
RL3RS399.9160
80
RL2RS295.08070
RL1RS18070
70

                                                                   Disposable mask standard
区分过滤效率[%以上]吸气压力[Pa以下]排气压力[Pa以下]
DOPNaCl有气阀无气阀有气阀无气阀
DL3DS399.9
150
100
80
100
DL2DS295
70
50
70
50
DL1DS180
60
45
60
45

5. Chinese National Standard GB6223-86UDC614.894:

Except for the Japanese standard (0.06-0.1 micron), the above inspection standards are all tested with a particle size of 0.3 micron. The EU standard detection flow rate is 95L / min, and the US standard is 85L / min. China's national standard uses a suspended particle size of more than 90% of less than 5 microns, more than 70% of less than 2 microns, and a flow rate of 42.5L / min. In the testing and certification of filter media, the "worst case" concept is adopted, that is, the conditions when the laboratory performs the testing experiment are set to the worst conditions. For example, when the efficiency experiment is used, the particle size of the aerosol sodium salt or DOP oil mist is 0.3 microns, and it represents the diameter of the aerodynamic calculation. The breathing volume during strong physical labor, the high temperature and high humidity pretreatment of the filter material before the experiment represents a harsh working environment. The purpose of all these is to test under such harsh conditions, if the filter material can pass the test Reaching the corresponding efficiency level, then in practical applications, it can certainly protect the health of workers more effectively. Anti-toxic filter materials generally use activated carbon or chemically-treated activated carbon as a material, and filter poisonous gas or poisonous vapor by adsorption or chemical reaction without being inhaled by people. There are many micropores in the internal structure of activated carbon that can constitute a huge specific surface area. These micropores can inhale toxic vapors and toxic gas molecules with different molecular sizes into them without escaping. The treatment and installation requirements of activated carbon are very high. If the improper treatment or the activated carbon particles are very thick and cause gaps between the particles, the poison gas will penetrate into the respiratory tract from the gap and will not be adsorbed. Therefore, it is very unscientific to replace the activated carbon in bags. The activated carbon in a good chemical filter box should be packed densely, with a small particle size and a large specific surface area, so that the anti-virus time will be long, and at the same time, it must be considered that the respiratory resistance is small and comfortable to wear.

Air-supply mask

It refers to the clean air source isolated from harmful substances, which is sent to the face of the person through a tube and a face mask for breathing through dynamic actions such as an air compressor and a compressed gas cylinder device.

Air filter mask

Air filter masks are the most widely used in daily work. The structure of an air filter mask should be divided into two parts, one is the main body of the mask, which can be simply understood as a mask frame; the other is the filter material part, including dustproof filter cotton and antivirus Chemical filter box, etc.

How to choose a mask

dust collection efficiency

The dust blocking efficiency of the mask is based on its blocking efficiency for fine dust, especially for respiratory dust below 2.5 micrometers. Because the dust of this size can directly enter the alveoli, it has the greatest impact on human health. Gauze masks, the principle of dust suppression is mechanical filtration, that is, when the dust hits the gauze, it passes through layers of barriers, blocking some large particles of dust in the sand cloth. For some fine dust, especially the dust smaller than 2.5 microns, it will pass through the mesh of the gauze and enter the respiratory system. The dust mask is composed of filter material activated carbon fiber felt or non-woven fabric. The breathable dust smaller than 2.5 microns is blocked during the process of passing through this filter material, which plays the role of filtering air.

Closeness

The anti-leakage design of the mask is to prevent air from being sucked through the gap between the mask and the human face without filtering through the consideration of technical requirements. Air is like water flow, wherever resistance is small, it flows first. When the shape of the mask is not close to the face, the dangerous objects in the air will leak into the airway from the non-closed place. So, even if you choose a mask with the best filter material. Nor can it protect your health. Many foreign regulations and standards stipulate that workers should conduct regular mask adhesion tests. The purpose is to ensure that workers choose appropriate masks and wear the masks in accordance with the correct procedures.

Wearing comfort

In this way, workers will be happy to wear it in the workplace and improve their work efficiency. Current maintenance-free masks abroad do not require cleaning or replacement of parts. When the dust barrier is saturated or the mask is damaged, it is discarded. This not only ensures the hygiene of the mask but also saves the time and effort of the workers to maintain the mask. Moreover, many masks adopt an arched shape, which can not only ensure a good adhesion with the shape of the face, but also reserve a certain space at the mouth and nose, which is comfortable to wear.

Not suitable for the crowd

People with heart or respiratory problems (such as asthma and emphysema), pregnancy, dizziness after wearing, difficulty breathing, and sensitive skin.

Mask filter material

For the filter material of a good protective mask, the following three conditions should be met. First, the filter efficiency is high when the mask is close to the user's face, second, the respiratory resistance is small, and third, the user feels comfortable. There are many kinds of materials for dust-proof masks, including common fabrics, animal hair, non-woven fabrics, etc. Activated carbon felt material is very popular in the national standard.

The structure of the gauze mask is very inadequate to the human face. Many small particles that are extremely harmful to us will enter the respiratory tract to the lungs through the gap between the mask and the face. Its filter material is usually some mechanical fabric. The only way to achieve high dust resistance is to increase the thickness, and the negative effect of increasing the thickness is to make the user feel that the breathing resistance is very large and uncomfortable. The non-woven fabric after electrostatic treatment can not only block large dust particles, but also the static charge attached to its surface can attract fine dust by electrostatic attraction, achieving a high dust suppression efficiency. The thickness of the filter material is very thin, which greatly reduces the user's breathing resistance and feels comfortable, thus achieving the three necessary conditions of the good filter material we mentioned earlier. With good filter material and the scientifically designed mask structure, a high-efficiency and high-quality mask is formed.

wearing performance

The mask must be the right size and the way it is worn must be correct for the mask to be effective. The masks on the market are generally divided into two types, rectangular and cup-shaped. A rectangular mask must have at least three layers of paper structure to have a protective effect. The user needs to press the wire on the mask against the bridge of the nose, and then spread the entire mask along the bridge of the nose in order to exert the effect. Let the child wear a rectangular surgical mask because it has no fixed shape, and if it is properly tied, it can fit the child's face. Cup-shaped masks must ensure that the masks have sufficient density after they are attached to the face, so that the air will not leak out when exhaled. When wearing a cup-shaped mask, cover the mask with both hands and try to blow air. Check whether there is air leakage from the edge of the mask. If the mask is not tight, you must readjust the position before wearing it.

Replace the mask

1. The mask is contaminated with foreign objects such as blood stains or droplets

2. The user feels that the breathing resistance becomes greater

3. Damaged mask

4. Dust-proof filter cotton, when the mask and the user's face are in good contact, when the user feels that the breathing resistance is very large, it means that the filter cotton has been filled with dust particles and should be replaced with a new one.

5. Anti-virus filter box, when the mask is in good contact with the user's door, when the user smells the poison, it should be replaced.

6. Ordinary masks need to be cleaned for about 2 hours. Soak in boiling water for 5 to 8 minutes before cleaning. Activated carbon masks can generally be used for 2 days, n95 can be used for a week. If the mask has not been worn for a long time after cleaning, it is better to wear it again.

Production materials

2-layer mask: non-woven fabric, nose bridge, ear hook.

3-layer mask: non-woven fabric, bridge of nose, ear hook, filter paper.

Activated carbon mask: non-woven fabric, nose bridge, ear hook, filter paper, activated carbon filter paper.


Precautions

usage time

From the point of view of human physiology, blood circulation in the nasal mucosa is very strong, and the channels in the nasal cavity are very tortuous. The nasal hairs constitute a filtering "barrier". When air is inhaled into the nostrils, the airflow forms a vortex in the tortuous channel, which heats the airflow into the nasal cavity. Some tests have shown that when cold air at minus 7 ° C is drawn into the lungs through the nasal cavity, the airflow has been heated to 28.8 ° C, which is very close to the temperature of the human body. If you wear a mask for a long time, the nasal mucosa will become fragile and lose the original physiological function of the nasal cavity, so you cannot wear a mask for a long time. Masks can only be worn in special environments, such as places with many people and no air circulation. Of course, it is necessary to wear a mask to walk in the wild to resist the wind and sand, or to move in an environment with air pollution, but the time should not be too long. In addition, in the flu season, go to public places where a large number of pathogens may exist, you should also wear a mask. Wearing a mask is only one of the ways to prevent respiratory infectious diseases. The most important thing is to maintain good living habits.

Cleaning and maintenance

The outer layer of the mask often accumulates a lot of dust, bacteria and other dirt in the outside air, and the inner layer blocks the exhaled bacteria and saliva. Therefore, the two sides cannot be used interchangeably, otherwise the dirt contaminated by the outer layer will be directly attached When inhaled into the face, it becomes a source of infection. When the mask is not worn, it should be folded and placed in a clean envelope, and the side close to the nose and nose should be folded inwards, and it should never be stuffed into the pocket or hung around the neck.

If the mask is wetted by exhaled heat or saliva, its effect of blocking germs will be greatly reduced. Therefore, it is best to prepare a few more masks for replacement. You should change and wash it once a day. When washing, it should be scalded with boiling water for 5 minutes.

Masks should be cleaned and disinfected every day. Both gauze masks and air filter masks can be disinfected by heating. The specific approach is:

1. Cleaning. First, gently rub the gauze mask with warm water and soap. The bowl-shaped mask can be gently brushed with a soft brush dipped in detergent, and then washed with water. Please be careful not to rub hard, because if the warp and weft gap of the gauze is too large, it will lose the effect of preventing droplets.

2. Disinfect. Put the cleaned mask in a 2% peracetic acid solution for 30 minutes or boil in boiling water for 20 minutes or steam in a steamer for 15 minutes, and then dry it for use. This method is suitable for gauze masks and bowl-shaped masks.

3. Check. Before using it again, you should carefully check whether the mask and mask are still intact. For gauze masks and masks, you can take a light transmission inspection method, that is, take a look in front of the lamp to see if there are obvious light spots, the middle part and the edge part are transparent Is the rate consistent? If in doubt, replace it with a new one. In any case, masks and masks are generally updated after 3 to 7 times of cleaning, and masks of particularly good quality can be cleaned 10 times. Activated carbon adsorption masks should pay attention to regularly replace the activated carbon interlayer. If the activated carbon interlayer is not replaceable, it will be replaced after 7 to 14 days. This mask cannot be washed and then reused.


statement

 We do not produce protective materials such as masks, but also refuse to sell all kinds of protective materials at high prices. If you need and are looking for the same supplies, please contact us, we will do our best to help anyone get the protection materials they deserve. The materials we can help you get at present: masks, protective clothing, goggles. riohua@fiberfocc.com

 

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